Zeziphi izinto ezichaphazela ukulunga?

Injongo yokuthwala kufanelekile kukukwenza iringi yangaphakathi okanye iringi yangaphandle igcinwe ngokuqinileyo neshafti okanye iqokobhe, ukuthintela i-axial engathandekiyo okanye ukujikeleza okusisijikelezo kumgangatho ofanayo.

Olu hlobo lokutyibilika okungathandekiyo (olubizwa ngokuba kukuhamba ngenyawo) luya kubangela ukufudumeza okungaqhelekanga, ukunxiba umphezulu wokukhwelana (oya kwenza ukuba umgubo wentsimbi onxibileyo uhlasele ngaphakathi) kunye nentshukumo, eya kwenza ukuthwala kungakwazi ukudlala indawo yayo yonke.

Ke ngoko, kwiibheringi, ngenxa yokujikeleza kokulayisha, kuyimfuneko ngokubanzi ukuvumela umsesane ukuba uphazanyiswe, ukuze uzinze ngokuqinileyo neshafti okanye iqokobhe.

Ukunyamezelana ngakwicala shaft kunye nezindlu

Ukunyamezelana kwesamente kunye nomngxunya wezindlu kuthotho lweetrikri kumiselwe ngokulinganayo yi-GB / t275-93 "iibheringi ezijikelezayo kunye neshafti kunye nokulingana kwezindlu". Ukulingana kokuthwala kunye neshafti okanye indlu kunokumiselwa ngokukhetha ukunyamezelana.

Ukhetho lokuthwala kufanelekile

Ukukhethwa kokulingana kufanelekile kwenziwa ngokwemigaqo elandelayo.

Ngokolwalathiso kunye nohlobo lomthwalo osebenza ekuthwaleni kwaye leliphi icala lamasangqa angaphakathi nangaphandle ajikelezayo, umthwalo ohanjiswe yiringi nganye unokwahlulwa ube ngumthwalo ojikelezayo, umthwalo ongashukumiyo okanye umthwalo ongahambisi ndawo. Ukulunga okumileyo (ukuphazamiseka kufanelekile) kufuneka kwamkelwe umthwalo ojikelezayo kunye nomthwalo ongahambisi ndawo, kunye nokulungelelaniswa kokutshintsha okanye ukulunga okunamandla (imvume yokuvala) ngokusetyenziswa okuncinci kunokusetyenziselwa iringi ethwele umthwalo we-tuli.

Xa umthwalo ophetheyo mkhulu okanye uthwele ukungcangcazela kunye nomthwalo wempembelelo, ukuphazamiseka kwawo kufuneka kunyuswe. Xa kusenziwa u-shaft, ibhokisi ethwele ibhanti encinci okanye i-alloy ekhanyayo okanye ibhokisi ephethe iplastiki isetyenzisiwe, ukuphazamiseka kufuneka kunyuswe.

Xa ujikelezo oluphezulu lufunekayo, kufuneka kusetyenziswe ukuchaneka okuphezulu kokudityaniswa, kunye nokuchaneka komphambili webhokisi kunye nomngxunya wokuthwala ibhokisi kuya kuphuculwa ukunqanda uphazamiseko olugqithisileyo. Ukuba ukuphazamiseka kukhulu kakhulu, ijiyometri yesangqa sokuthwala inokuchaphazeleka ngokuchaneka kwejiyometri yeshafti okanye ibhokisi ethweleyo, oko ke konakalisa ukuchaneka kokujikeleza kokuthwala.

Ukuba amakhonkco angaphakathi nangaphandle eebheringi ezingenako ukwahlulwa (ezinje ngeebheringi zebhola ejulileyo) amkela indawo emileyo, kuya kuba nzima kakhulu ukufaka nokudibanisa iibheringi. Kungcono ukusebenzisa ulungelelwaniso olunamandla kwelinye icala lamakhonkco angaphakathi nangaphandle.

1) Impembelelo yeepropathi zomthwalo

Umthwalo wokuthwala unokwahlulwa ube ngumthwalo ojikelezayo wangaphakathi, ukujikeleza kwendandatho yangaphandle kunye nomthwalo ongacwangciswanga ngokwendalo. Ubudlelwane phakathi kokuthwala umthwalo kunye nokulingana kunokubhekisa kumgangatho ofanayo wokuthwala.

2) Impembelelo yobungakanani bomthwalo

Ngaphantsi kwesenzo somthwalo oshukumayo, ulwalathiso lweradi engaphakathi kwiringi yangaphakathi icinezelwe kwaye yandisiwe, kwaye isangqa sithande ukwanda kancinci, ke ukuphazamiseka kokuqala kuya kuncitshiswa. Ukuncitshiswa kokuphazamiseka kunokubalwa ngale ndlela ilandelayo:

Apha:

DF: ukuncitshiswa kongeniso lweringi yangaphakathi, mm

d: Ukuthwala ubukhulu begama elingaphakathi, mm

B: Igama lendandatho yangaphakathi yobubanzi, mm

Fr: umthwalo we-radial, n {KGF}

Co: umthwalo osisiseko olinganisiweyo, n {KGF}

Ke ngoko, xa umthwalo weradial ngumthwalo onzima (ngaphezulu kwe-25% yexabiso le-CO), ukuthelekisa kuya kufuneka kuqine ngaphezu komthwalo okhanyayo.

Kwimeko yomthwalo wempembelelo, kufanelekile kufanelekile.

3) Impembelelo yoburhabaxa bomhlaba

Ukuba uqwalaselo lweplastikhi yomphezulu wokudibana uthathelwa ingqalelo, uphazamiseko olusebenzayo luyachaphazeleka kumgangatho wokuchaneka komphezulu wokulinganisa, onokuthi ubonakaliswe malunga nale fomyula ilandelayo:

[ukugaya ishafti]

Umphumo = (d / (d + 2)) * ......d ...... (3)

[ujika shaft]

Umphumo = (d / (d + 3)) * ......d ...... (4)

Apha:

Ff izixhobo: uphazamiseko olusebenzayo, mm

: D: ukuphazamiseka okubonakalayo, mm

d: Ukuthwala ubukhulu begama elingaphakathi, mm

4) Impembelelo yokuthwala ubushushu

Ngokubanzi, iqondo lobushushu lokuthwala liphezulu kuneqondo elijikelezileyo ngexesha lokujikeleza okuguqukayo, kwaye ubushushu bendandatho yangaphakathi bungaphezulu kobushushu be-shaft xa ukuthwala kujikeleza ngomthwalo, ke ukuphazamiseka okusebenzayo kuya kuncitshiswa ngokwandiswa kobushushu.

Ukuba umahluko wobushushu phakathi kokuthwala ngaphakathi kunye neqokobhe langaphandle ngu-T ⊿ T, kunokucingelwa ukuba umahluko wobushushu phakathi kweringi yangaphakathi kunye neshafti kumphezulu wokumitha umalunga ne (0.01-0.15) ⊿ t. Ke ngoko, ukunciphisa ukuphazamiseka ⊿ DT okubangelwa ngumahluko wobushushu kunokubalwa kwifomula 5

=dt = (0.10 ukuya ku-0.15) *t * α * d

0.0015⊿t * d * 0.01 ...... (5)

Apha:

DT: ukunciphisa ukuphazamiseka okubangelwa ngumahluko wobushushu, mm

⊿ T: umahluko wobushushu phakathi kwangaphakathi kwebhere kunye nokujikeleza kwegobolondo, ℃

α: Umlinganiso wolwandiso lomgama we-steel (12.5 × 10-6) 1 / ℃

d: Ukuthwala ubukhulu begama elingaphakathi, mm

Ke ngoko, xa iqondo lobushushu lokuthwala liphezulu kuneqondo lobushushu elithweleyo, ulungelelwaniso kufuneka luqiniswe.

Ukongeza, ngenxa yomahluko wokwahluka kobushushu okanye ukungalingani kokukhula komgama phakathi kweringi yangaphandle kunye negobolondo yangaphandle, ngamanye amaxesha ukuphazamiseka kuyonyuka. Ke ngoko, ingqalelo kufuneka ihlawulwe ekusetyenzisweni kwesilayidi phakathi kwendandatho yangaphandle kunye nomgangatho wokulinganisa izindlu ukunqanda ukwanda kobushushu beshafti.

5) Ubuninzi boxinzelelo lwangaphakathi lokuthwala olubangelwa kukulingana

Xa ukuthwala kufakwe ukuphazamiseka kufanelekile, iringi iya kwanda okanye inciphe, ngaloo ndlela ivelise uxinzelelo.

Xa uxinzelelo lukhulu kakhulu, ngamanye amaxesha iring iyaqhawuka, efuna ukuhoywa.

Uxinzelelo oluphezulu lwangaphakathi lokuthwala oluveliswe ngokudibanisa lunokubalwa ngefomula kwiTheyibhile 2. Njengexabiso lesalathiso, ukuphazamiseka okuphezulu akukho ngaphezulu kwe-1/1000 ye-shaft ubukhulu, okanye uxinzelelo oluphezulu σ olufunyenwe kwifomula yokubala kwi Itheyibhile 2 ayikho ngaphezulu kwe-120MPa {12kgf / mm2}.

Ubuninzi boxinzelelo lwangaphakathi lokuthwala olubangelwa kukulingana

Apha:

Uxinzelelo oluphezulu, MPA {kgf / mm2}

d: Ukuthwala ubukhulu bengaphakathi (shaft ubukhulu), mm

Di: iringi yangaphakathi yomdyarho wobubanzi, mm

Ibhola ethwele uDi = 0.2 (D + 4d)

Roller ethwele Di = 0.25 (D + 3d)

Ff deff: uphazamiseko olusebenzayo lweringi yangaphakathi, mm

Yenza: i-radius ye-shaft shaft, mm

De: ubukhulu bomphandle wendlela, mm

Ibhola ethwele iDe = 0.2 (4D + d)

Roller ethwele De = 0.25 (3D + d)

D: Ukuthwala ubukhulu bengaphandle (ubukhulu beqokobhe), mm

Ff deff: uphazamiseko olusebenzayo lweringi yangaphandle, mm

I-DH: ububanzi obungaphandle beqokobhe, mm

E: Imodyuli ye-elastic yi-2.08 × 105Mpa {21200kgf /


Ixesha leposi: Dec-18-2020